Subjects – Syria Report



During the visit of a Syrian business delegation to Belgrade in May, Serbian University Novi Sad announced dozens of scholarships for the children of Syrian regime soldiers killed in action. The choice to offer scholarships to children of the Syrian ‘martyrs’ is highly politically charged, given the widely documented international law violations perpetrated by the Syrian army in 13 years of conflict. 
In 2023, the Syrian government partially reemerged from international diplomatic isolation as the regional normalisation process gained traction. After being reinstated in the Arab League in May, Bashar Al-Assad, his ministers, and Chambers of Commerce in regime areas have had a busier agenda compared to previous years, mostly re-engaging with Arab leaders and some Western countries.
A decision by the Syrian government to shift phosphate exports handled by the Port of Lattakia to the port of Tartous has highlighted tensions between the foreign private operators of these ports and the government. Syria holds the fourth or fifth largest rock phosphate reserves worldwide.
The Syrian government has licensed two Saudi-owned companies to invest in Syria’s phosphate, fertiliser, and cement sectors, a rare instance of Saudi investments in the country since the 2011 conflict began. The decision is also a notable development given that, until now, Damascus has largely reserved the phosphate and fertiliser sectors to its traditional allies. 


This 9300-word report presents a detailed account of international sanctions on Syria. It delves into the American and European sanctions programs, exemptions, and challenges in enforcing sanctions.
This report provides a detailed account of Syria's chambers of commerce and industry, tracing their roles, activities, and representatives before and after the conflict. It also sheds light on chambers established by the Syrian Salvation Government and the Syrian Interim Government.
This report provides an overview of Syria’s railway sector from the early 2000s until today. It sheds light on the sector prior to the Syrian uprising; the many projects that coincided with President Bashar Al-Assad’s ambition of transforming the country into the region’s transport hub; the damages to the sector caused by the decade-long conflict; and the challenges to the sector’s reconstruction.