This report provides a detailed overview of Syria’s economic relations with the European Union, as well as the most important developments that have taken place over the last two decades. The first section of the report reviews the E.U.-Syria Association Agreement process which took place between 1998 and 2011. The following two sections examine trade relations between the two partners and examine the E.U.’s assistance to Syria between the early 2000s and 2011. The fourth and fifth sections provide an overview of the E.U.’s reaction to the brutal suppression of the Syrian uprising and the measures that it took to pressure the regime. Finally, the last two sections trace bilateral trade relations between 2011 and 2021 and shed light on the humanitarian aspect of the crisis and the challenges linked to Syria’s reconstruction from an E.U. point of view.