For displaced residents, returning to the city of Al-Hajar Al-Aswad does not appear feasible in the foreseeable future despite repeated official announcements suggesting otherwise. Rubble still obstructs movement in main and subsidiary streets, while the rehabilitation of infrastructure is still in its initial stages.
Personal Status Law No. 59 of 1953 and its amendments regulate inheritance based on Islamic law. The law includes the Alawites, though it excludes Druze and Christians.
Since 2018, the Directorate of Cadastral Affairs in Idlib has been affiliated with the Ministry of Local Administration and Services under the Syrian Salvation Government, the governing body of Hayat Tahrir Al-Sham.
The real estate market in the Daraa Governorate has witnessed increased supply and lower prices, coinciding with the conclusion of the recent security settlement deal. The likely reason for this increase in supply is due to people selling their properties in order to afford migration outside of Syria.
The Directorate of Cadastral Affairs in Rural Damascus is re-registering real estate records that were lost and damaged during the conflict and re-determining the delimitation and census of some properties, even while the Syrian opposition possesses a copy of the pre-2012 documents.
Law No. 3 of 2018, which is concerned with the removal of rubble from buildings damaged by natural or unnatural causes, or those slated for demolition, was actually issued to deal with buildings damaged by the conflict.
The governor of Damascus recently met with the owners of some plots of the Marota City project, which followed the announcement that the framework for the first tower in the Marota City construction project had been completed.
A private company recently obtained approval to establish the first real estate development zone within the city of Damascus. However, mystery shrouds the identities of the owners of the properties slated for development. The project is also a clear violation of the executive instructions of Real Estate Development Law No. 15 of 2008.
Recent post-conflict settlement deals in the town of Nahteh in the eastern countryside of the Daraa Governorate have coincided with violations of residents’ housing, land, and property rights.
Real Estate Sales Law No. 15 of 2021, as well as its accompanying ministerial decrees and executive instructions, remains the subject of protest in the Suweida Governorate, where the real estate and vehicle market is witnessing stagnation.
A team from UNRWA is continuing to work to assess damages to real estate in the Yarmouk Palestinian refugee camp south of Damascus; however, the assessment does not include an action plan to clarify the next steps for the return of residents.
In July 2018, Islamist opposition factions seized control of the two Shia towns of Kafraya and Al-Fuaa in the north of Idlib after evacuating the remaining residents according to the “Four Towns Agreement.” Since then, there have been disputes and clashes between the controlling armed factions and displaced Sunni civilians, who have recently arrived in the towns, over who has the right to live in the homes left behind by displaced Shia civilians. The towns were divided into districts, which were allocated to each armed faction present.
Five years after Syrian regime forces regained control over the area, the Lattakia Governorate announced the return to normal life in the villages of Al-Ghaneimiyeh and Wadi Sheikan in the rural northern part of Lattakia.
Poor living conditions and substantial unmet housing needs have spurred widespread “building violations” that are in violation of construction codes in the city of Masyaf in the countryside of the Hama Governorate. In recent years, many families have resorted to seizing state-owned lands on the outskirts of the city, especially on the western side.
Law No. 3 of 1976, which regulates land sales, fully and explicitly prohibits trading lands intended for construction within an approved general zoning plan.
The Damascus Governorate is delaying the return of residents to Al-Tadhamon District in southern Damascus, despite its optimistic statements in the past. The governorate recently halted work to remove rubble and rehabilitate the district with no explanation.
Similar to the public auctions held in the northern part of Hama governorate, there were auctions held between September 1 and 17 to invest in lands belonging to “absentees” from the regime-held countryside of eastern Deir-ez-Zor governorate, an area known as Al-Shamiyeh.
The Hama governorate has failed to recognise the rights of ‘al-mughareseh’ farmers, prohibiting them from harvesting their pistachio crops this season and offering their lands up for investment through public auctions held on July 12.
In Syria, the average annual housing deficit reached nearly 130,000 homes in the decade preceding the 2011 conflict, according to official estimates. This represents the annual gap between the demand for housing and the supply of implemented housing units and has become a major obstacle to property rights.
As battles have subsided since 2018, real estate prices in Damascus have risen to such an extent that owning a private home in the Syrian capital has become an inaccessible luxury to most of its residents.