Last month, the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (AANES) lost its main gateway to the outside world and a crucial financial lifeline after the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) suddenly closed two border crossings that link Northeast Syria to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). Consequently, all trade, including that of oil, has been suspended, as well as cross-border movements for all actors, including NGOs.
In late December 2021, Russia carried out a ten-day airstrike campaign on Idlib and parts of Rural Aleppo and Hama, killing civilians and widely damaging civilian infrastructure and key sources of livelihoods, including a UNICEF-supported water station, a foodstuff factory, and several poultry and cow farms. The attacks, which are in violation of the 2020 ceasefire agreement between Turkey and Russia, have only contributed to further exacerbating already deteriorating living conditions in the region and may be a sign of increasing tensions between the two countries.
On November 24, the European Union General Court issued varied judgements on applications submitted by three Syrian businessmen and one company regarding their inclusion on the EU Syria sanctions list. That same day, the highest French court dismissed a case brought against a former regime official. Meanwhile, the following week, the European Union sanctioned the privately owned Syrian airline Cham Wings in view of the Belarusian border crisis.

Water levels in the Euphrates river have dropped to their lowest in years with far-reaching implications for the economy of northeast Syria, which relies on its flow for power generation and agriculture as well as drinking water.


Iran and Syria recently signed a memorandum of understanding in the educational field, which, according to the Iranian Minister of Education, should help encourage the spread of the Persian language.