Stroytransgaz, a Russian engineering and construction company, has become a major player in Syria’s economy over the past few years, expanding its pre-conflict activities and reaching into new sectors. It has won major contracts in the fields of phosphates, port management, and fertilisers, at times at the expense of Iranian competitors, and has grown into a major symbol of Russia’s growing economic and political sway in Syria.
In this 2,600-word report, The Syria Report provides an overview of the recent history and status of Syria's three commercial maritime ports in Lattakia, Tartous, and Banias.
This 2,370-word report provides a detailed overview of the sector prior to and following the conflict, including its general history, key figures on production and planted areas, the extent to which the industry was impacted by the conflict, foreign companies previously involved in the industry, and the growing political and economic importance of the industry to the government since 2011.
Damascus Cham Holding Private JSC (DCH) is a private sector holding company fully owned by the Damascus governorate. In 2016, it was set up to develop and manage two large real estate areas in Damascus, as well as various other projects on behalf of the governorate. The largest – and most controversial – of these projects is Marota City, considered by many to be “Syria’s Solidere,” in reference to the controversial Lebanese firm that developed Beirut’s devastated downtown after that country’s 1975-90 civil war.
Relatively unknown prior to 2011, Samer Foz became one of Syria’s most powerful economic players following the conflict, being likened at one point to the business magnate and maternal cousin to the president, Rami Makhlouf. Despite leading a high profile during his heyday, Mr Foz has withdrawn from the public eye in recent years after being sanctioned and apparently being sidelined by the regime.
This report provides an overview of the Marota City project since its inception in 2012, shedding light on the legislative policies governing the project, the private sector developers involved, the interest shown by foreign investors, the impact of European sanctions on the project’s progress, and the symbolic precedent Marota City sets for a post-conflict Syria.
Wassim Qattan is a Damascene businessman who emerged among Syria’s business elite only a few years ago and is believed to be acting as a front for powerful regime personalities. Unknown prior to 2017, Mr Qattan has acquired several high-profile contracts from state institutions in the real estate and hospitality sectors. With little information on his source of wealth, he is widely believed to be acting as a front for wealthy and powerful regime personalities, even if the identity of his sponsor remains unclear.
This report examines economic and socio-political developments in Northeast Syria prior to and following 2011. It sheds light on the political institutions and economic policies of the AANES, as well as its relations with the Syrian government. Lastly, it provides a sketch of the administration's budget and covers various public and private sector investments.
Fares Shehabi (b. 1972), also known as Fares Ahmad Al-Shehabi, is a prominent Aleppan businessman who is mainly active in the pharmaceutical sector. Throughout the decade-long conflict, Mr Shehabi has been one of the most outspoken supporters of the regime.
In this 5,900-word report The Syria Report provides an overview of the E.U.-Syria economic relations and the most important developments that have taken place over the last two decades.
Khaled Zubaidi, also known as Khaled Mohammad Bassam Zubaidi, is a prominent Syrian businessman who has grown increasingly influential in the real estate, tourism, and luxury sectors over the past few years.
In this 3,100-word report, The Syria Report provides an overview of the most important economic developments that have taken place in the Golan Heights over the last 20 years.
Khodr Ali Taher, also known as Abou Ali Khodr, is a prominent Syrian businessman who grew increasingly influential in the last few years – an archetype of war profiteers in the country. In recent days, there have been several reports that Mr Taher has been arrested by the government or is on the run, highlighting the rapidly shifting allegiances and fragility of post-war business networks in Syria.
This report provides an overview of Syria’s universities from the early 2000s until today, with a particular focus on how the higher education sector has been impacted by the 2011 conflict.
This report is the second part of a two-part publication that will provide an overview of Syria’s relations with former Soviet Republics, namely Syria’s ties with the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) and Central Asian countries (Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan).
This report is the first part of a two-part publication that will provide an overview of Syria’s relations with former Soviet Republics. This first part will address Syria’s ties with the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Eastern Europe (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova), while the second will focus on Syria's ties with the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) and Central Asian countries (Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan).
Syria has four large industrial cities located near Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, and Deir-ez-Zor. The government built them to attract large-scale industrial projects, increase exports of high-value-added industrial products and create employment opportunities.
The following updated and expanded report describes the main components of Iranian-Syrian economic relations. The first two sections will examine trade and economic and business relations between the two countries prior to and following the 2011 conflict. The third will provide an overview of Iranian involvement in a variety of sectors, while the fourth will elaborate on Iran's growing economic foothold in the country since 2020. Finally, the fifth section will provide insight into the prospects of Iranian-Syrian relations.
This report provides an overview of Syria’s railway sector from the early 2000s until today. It sheds light on the sector prior to the Syrian uprising; the many projects that coincided with President Bashar Al-Assad’s ambition of transforming the country into the region’s transport hub; the damages to the sector caused by the decade-long conflict; and the challenges to the sector’s reconstruction.
This report will shed light on the economic relations between Syria and the UAE prior to 2011 and will trace the evolution of the bilateral relationship during the first half of the Syrian conflict. It will also focus on the path towards normalisation that has taken place in recent years, providing an overview of the business and economic ties since 2018 and covering the political and diplomatic developments that have taken place in the past six months.