This factsheet provides an overview of Syria’s railway sector from the early 2000s until today. It sheds light on the sector prior to the Syrian uprising; the many projects that coincided with President Bashar Al-Assad’s ambition of transforming the country into the region’s transport hub; the damages to the sector caused by the decade-long conflict; and the challenges to the sector’s reconstruction.
This factsheet will shed light on the economic relations between Syria and the UAE prior to 2011 and will trace the evolution of the bilateral relationship during the first half of the Syrian conflict. It will also focus on the path towards normalisation that has taken place in recent years, providing an overview of the business and economic ties since 2018 and covering the political and diplomatic developments that have taken place in the past six months.
This factsheet provides an overview of the phosphate sector prior to and following the Syrian conflict. It also sheds light on various projects, both implemented and abandoned, in the phosphate industry; the competition between Iran and Russia over the potentially lucrative sector; and the implications of the privatisation of Syria’s phosphate industry.
Prior to the uprising, China was a major trade partner of Syria and had investments in the country, especially in its petroleum sector. Although trade increased following the 2011 conflict, Chinese companies largely withdrew from the market. Meanwhile, the Chinese government played a quiet but supportive role for Syrian authorities
In the decade before the 2011 conflict, Syria sought to further deepen its regional economic and energy integration, becoming involved in a number of international pipeline projects, foremost the Arab Gas Pipeline.
Although, historically, political differences have often driven a wedge between Damascus and Amman, shared economic interests have frequently spurred rapprochement between the two countries.
Although Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad has declared victory after more than a decade of war, Damascus controls only ten out of at least 31 official border crossings.
Syria’s relations with South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and Crimea are a subset of its relations with Russia – Damascus’s primary political and military backer during the conflict.
A 2,000-word factsheet on the status of Syria's three commercial maritime ports in Lattakia, Tartous and Banias.
This 1,600-word factsheet provides an overview of the Syrian smart card, which has grown in importance as the government reduces subsidies on a large number of goods, including oil and food products.
This 2,200-word factsheet provides a profile of the Commercial Bank of Syria, the country's largest lender, whose history goes back to the Ottoman Empire and which is now under western sanctions.
This 2,200-word factsheet provides an overview of the Syrian tobacco sector, a major industry, particularly in the coastal area.
The Syrian businessman George Heswani has operated in Syria’s oil and gas sector since the 1990s, but his name has gained increasing prominence throughout Syria’s conflict, both for his close association with Russia and for his alleged role in brokering deals with the Islamic State organisation (ISIS) to purchase oil on the Syrian government’s behalf.
In this 2,800-word factsheet we provide an overview of Syria's wheat sector and of the challenges it faces.
This article is an updated and expanded factsheet on the economic and business relations between Syria and Iran as of June 2020.
The rise of Rami Makhlouf as Syria’s most prominent businessman coincided with the ascent to power of Bashar Al-Assad in 2000. Given his long history of influence within the ruling elite, Mr Makhlouf’s recent side-lining raises many questions about the potential implications of his fall from grace.
This article is an updated and expanded factsheet on the economic and business relations between Syria and Russia as of April 2020.
Updated on September 28: In this 4,400-word factsheet, we provide a profile of the main businesses and economic institutions affiliated with the Syrian Ministry of Defence.
A 2,300-word factsheet on the Syrian activities of Stroytransgaz, the Russian company that has become the symbol of Moscow’s economic influence in the country.
In this 4,000-word factsheet we provide an overview of Syria's renewable energy sector with a list of the main investment projects so far and the text of the renewable energy strategy adopted by the government last year.